Mulla Sadra, the founder of the Transcendent philosophy, is one of the philosophers who also pays attention to the field of logic and has some works in this regard. Al-Tanqih is his most important work on logic, in which, in addition to presenting some logical structures, he has analyzed a number of logical problems. In this book, following the method of earlier scholars, Mulla Sadra defines logic and says, “Logic is the scale of perception which evaluates thoughts so that the correct is distinguished from the corrupt.” In this definition, he emphasizes the instrumental role of logic.

In fact Mulla Sadra’s endeavors in the field of logic led to the enrichment of the one-thousand-year-old legacy of research on logic in Islamic philosophy. In the eyes of this theologian-philosopher the domain of logic’s detection of errors is the world of thought. This world, too, is exposed to axiomatic, intuitive, and blessed or ishraqi (illuminative) perceptions.

Wherever and wherever one wishes to attain new knowledge relying on organizing and selecting from his background knowledge, one needs logic.