Parts of  Transcendent Philosophy


In Mulla Sadra’s perfect system of thought, one can find all significant components and branches of philosophy, which, taken together, comprise a coherent philosophical system. Ontology and the issues related to metaphysics have the greatest share in this regard and, following them, the majority of discussions are related to theology, psychology, eschatology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics,[1] and logic, respectively.

These components, although intermixed, are connected to each other according logically, as is necessary for a perfect philosophical system enjoying a high level of coherence and versatility. In this system, ontological issues are employed as the bases for demonstrating other issues.

Mulla Sadra’s epistemological views are presented in a scattered manner under other issues. One can seek them under subjects such as mental existence, psychological qualities and accidents, the unity of the knower and the known, and the unity of the intellect and the intelligible, and synthesize them with each other. Likewise, his ideas about the philosophy of ethics and political philosophy have not been presented in a focused form. Although he has two independent books on formal logic, a great number of logical issues, whose collection could comprise a valuable book on logic and the philosophy of logic, can also be found among his philosophical discussions.

Mulla Sadra attaches great importance to the knowledge of the soul on the basis of the Islamic tradition of ‘know yourself to know God’, and deals with the subject of the soul in almost most of his books. Nevertheless, he devotes almost a quarter of al-Asfar al-arbaah to discussions of the soul, and the end of its ontological journey towards the Day of Resurrection, Paradise, and Hell. In addition to some issues that, for various reasons, have been analyzed during other discussions, problems related to eschatology and animate beings’ life after death comprise another important part of Mulla Sadra’s philosophy, and have appeared under topics such as psychology and eschatology.





[1]. It is interesting that the issues related to love and aesthetics are categorized under theology in Mulla Sadra’s philosophy.