A Review of Mullā Ṣadrā's Responses to the Problem of the Necessity of Subsuming One Quiddity into two Categories in the Discussion of Mental Existence
Based on the theory of the qualitative nature of knowledge and the identity of mental and objective quiddities, the acceptance of the theory of mental existence poses the problem of the necessity of the inclusion of knowledge in two categories. In his works, Mullā Ṣadrā has tried to solve this problem through distinguishing between common and primary predications, application of two categories to knowledge from two essential and accidental aspects, negation of the subsistence of inherence, and acceptance of the application of two categories to cognitive form due to the mentally-positedness of quiddity, and the possibility of its shadow-like realization in the form of multiple existences. Although a study of his responses indicate their incompleteness in resolving the issue, his principles have paved the ground for accomplishing this task through accepting the "predication of the indicator on the indicated". According to this view, regardless of what the nature and category of the cognitive form is, the narration of the nature of an external thing is introduced as the ontological attribute of the cognitive form, which has nothing to do with its nature and is, rather, outside the realm of categories. Through this solution, we can both maintain the correspondence between the cognitive form and the nature of the external thing and, while accepting the realization of the cognitive form in the mind, resolve the problem of the necessity of the inclusion of knowledge in two categories.
mental existence, categories, category of quality, quiddity, narration, correspondence, Mullā Ṣadrā
A Study of the Theory of the Correspondence of Worlds and its Role in Explaining the Relationship Between Cognitive and Objective Existence of Possible Things in the Transcendent Philosophy
Similar to most Muslim philosophers, Mullā Ṣadrā conceives of the divine essential knowledge of possible things as prior knowledge and maintains that it is of the type of active knowledge. However, the actuality of divine knowledge in the system of the Transcendent philosophy has a different meaning from its well-known interpretation. The understanding of this different meaning demands paying attention to Mullā Ṣadrā's particular perception of the theory of the correspondence of worlds, where he emphasizes the objective correspondence of cognitive and objective worlds instead of their categorical correspondence. Following a descriptive-analytic method, this paper aims to present an accurate explanation of Mullā Ṣadrā's perception of the theory of the correspondence of worlds. It is worth mentioning that several philosophical principles, such as "the truth in its simplicity contains all things" and "identity of collective and detailed knowledge" in the Transcendent Philosophy have been developed under the influence of this theory. Mullā Ṣadrā's concern regarding the ontological all-inclusiveness of particular existences is the portrayal of the ontological inclusion of collective existence through some truths, each of which embodies all the behaviors and evolutions of the inferior existence similar to an all-inclusive jewel. In such conditions, the knowledge of this ontological jewel, which is considered to be the truth of the inferior existence, is the same as the knowledge of all the states and aspects of the particular existence.
correspondence of worlds, individual objectivity, categorical objectivity, divine knowledge, Mullā Ṣadrā
A Study of Specific Commonalities of Duties from Religious and Philosophical Perspectives: An Anthropological Approach
This study investigates the problem of the possibility of similar duty from the viewpoints of religion and philosophy based on their anthropological principles. Since the problem of duty is tied to Man's specific oneness and plurality, the study of religious and philosophical views in this regard could open some new horizons before us. Although religious figures and most philosophers advocate the "specific oneness" of human beings, existentialists acknowledge their specific multiplicity. Therefore, religions and most philosophers practically agree with the sameness of duties; however, theoretically speaking, it can be said that Man's specific plurality necessitates the existence of different duties. Hence, it seems that there might be certain inconsistencies such as the contrast between Mullā Ṣadrā's theory of Man's specific multiplicity and his practical commitment to the similarity of duties. Nevertheless, to resolve this inconsistency, one can refer to Man's stability in spite of their trans-substantial motion and specific plurality. Another contrast pertains to the verses referring to the essential equality of human beings and those emphasizing the performance of duties within the limits of one's capabilities. One can refer to the difference between the stages of making the duties and their being made.
Duty, religion, Philosophy, specific plurality, anthropological principles, Mullā Ṣadrā
A Philosophical Reading of the Social Dimension of Perfect Man in Nahj al-Balāghah Based on Transcendent Philosophy
This paper aims to provide a general picture of the social dimension of perfect Man based on the statements in Nahj al-Balāghah and their philosophical analysis relying on the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. This social dimension includes the characteristics of a perfect Man in interaction with other human beings within his social and this-worldly structure. The knowledge of perfect Man in this area reveals his civilizational role in the human society and in the actualization the Transcendent society. This study was carried out following a descriptive-analytic method. According to the teachings of Nahj al-Balāghah and the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy, beginning a philosophical revolution in society and leading it in the right direction are accomplished through intrinsic awakening and flourishing of human beings and revealing their intellectual treasures. Such treasures provide the basis for the social activities of perfect Man which, along with his other ontological perfections and because of people's obeying him, result in the social, cultural, political, and economic development and prosperity and the establishment of transcendent society. Hence, the centrality and leadership of perfect Man and people's obedience for him are the foundations and most important pillars of the realization of the idea of transcendent society.
perfect Man's social dimension,
Transcendent Philosophy, vicegerency,
Anthropological Bases of Sadrian Philosophy for the Interaction of Religious Sciences and Psychology
The interactions between religious and modern sciences is presently one of the concerns of Islamic societies. This study investigates the anthropological principles of Sadrian philosophy based on which religious sciences and psychology can interact and exchange knowledge with each other. In other words, it aims to demonstrate the interactions between religious sciences and modern psychology in the context of philosophical anthropology as one of the scientific foundations of these two disciplines. Following the library and content analysis methods, the researchers conclude that Sadrian philosophy, because of its anthropological principles in the two general realms of "cognitive science" and "cognitive concept", provides an appropriate context for the exchange of data between religious sciences and psychology. Philosophical anthropology provides the necessary context for the mutual relationship between these sciences in "cognitive science" through the correct explanation of the purposes, methods, instruments, sources, structures, and criteria of religious sciences and psychology. In the context of conceptology, Sadrian philosophy has created an appropriate interactive context for the exchange of conceptual science between these disciplines through the explanation of quiddity and employment of such concepts as motivation, love, and meaning of life from an anthropological viewpoint.
religious sciences, psychology, anthropology, Transcendent Philosophy
"I" and the Criterion for its Distinction from "others" in Suhrawardī, Mullā Ṣadrā, and Descartes
The present study discusses the identity and referent of "I" and the criterion for distinguishing "true I" from the other in the views of Suhrawardī, Mullā Ṣadrā, and Descartes. According to these three philosophers, "I" is the external and self-revealing identity that Man learns about through presential knowledge. The referent of true I in Suhrawardī's view is immaterial light, which enjoys continuous self-awareness through the permanent manifestation of essence. In Mullā Ṣadrā's philosophy, referent is a level of existence which is continually in a state of change in the cradle of the trans-substantial motion; it is a graded realm with no fixed identity. For Descartes, the referent is an immaterial dimension that is continually involved in a state of thinking. Therefore, all three philosophers believe that true "I" is in fact a perceptive, knowledgeable, and thinking "I". The distinction criterion for true I is also the same for all of them. This is because Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā consider continuous knowledge and not neglecting the self, which is the same as self-awareness, to be the distinction criterion for true I. However, Descartes' criterion is clarity and distinction, which seem to be the same thing that Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā call continuous presence or self-awareness. Hence, it seems that the distinction criterion for "true I" is the same in the view of all the three philosophers.
human being, I , self-awareness, presential knowledge, Suhrawardī, Mullā Ṣadrā, Descartes
A Study of the Manifestation of the Theory of Four-fold Journeys in the Architecture of Naqsh-e Jahān Square in Isfahan
Several studies have been conducted on Naqsh-e Jahān Square so far. However, there is still much to explore regarding the reasons behind its construction and development. Some of the many questions that require further research target the present sizes of its dimensions, the setting of its elements, and the philosophy of using different colors and designs in the various corners of this square. Following two descriptive-analytic and historical-interpretive methods, this study investigated the thoughts and motives behind the architectural design and construction of Naqsh-e Jahān Square. The required data for this study was collected and analyzed through library and content analysis methods. The findings of the study indicate that, in addition to being the Safavid House of Government, this square functioned as a religious-political statement presenting the gnostic-Shi'ite thoughts which had been hidden in Iranians' unconscious mind. This square allegorizes the Holy Prophet's night of ascension and visualizes gnostic wayfaring for wayfarers through reminding them of the different stations of the four-fold journeys. Since the time of Ibn 'Arabī onwards and, particularly, in Mullā Ṣadrā's philosophy, four stations have been referred to for this mystic journey called the four-fold journeys. The findings of this study show the correspondence between these four journeys with the four main elements of the square. The four journeys represent an allegory and visualization of the Holy Prophet's journey on the night of ascension, when he travelled from Mecca to Jerusalem and then to heaven. The 1300-m2 circumference of Naqsh-e Jahān Square allegorizes the 1300 km distance between Mecca and Jerusalem. The designs of Qeysarriyah Bazar symbolize the different aspects of daily and worldly life. Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque has no courtyard and bed chamber, and the wayfarer only witnesses the manifestations of Almighty Truth by standing under the dome of the mosque. The Abbasi jām' Mosque is the symbol of the station of "jam' (reunion)" in gnostic journey. The second journey begins with traveling at the khafi (secret) and akhfi (most secret) levels, at which the wayfarer is mortalized. The third stage of wayfaring, which embodies a kind of shari'at, is a confirmation of the idea of guardianship. At the end of the journey, the wayfarer returns to the threshold of Qeysarriyah again. However, this is not a vicious circle because the wayfarer returns to his true self through experiencing the previous stages.
Naqsh-e Jahān, four-fold journeys, Gnosis, Mullā Ṣadrā, Safavid government